Orthopaedic Specialists in Foot and Ankle Conditions, and Treatment
An ankle sprain is an injury condition involving the ligaments of the ankle joint or foot. The sprain is more commonly associated with sporting activities, but can occur by simply stepping incorrectly and twisting the foot – either inward or outward – beyond its normal range of motion. The result may be a stretched, partially, or completely torn ligament.
The degree of strain is assign a grade number. Grade 1 sprains involve and excessive stretch and some tendon fiber damage. Grade 2 sprains involve partial tearing of the ligament. With grade 3 sprains, a complete tear of the ligament has occurred.
Non-surgical treatment is almost always utilized in treating sprains, including rest, anti-inflammatory medication, and rehabilitation through physical therapy.
With overuse, either in consistency or a sudden increase in use of the Achilles tendon – through walking, running, or other activity, inflammation may occur in the Achilles tendon. Cases of impact or trauma related Achilles tendonitis are are. The condition causes irritation, pain, and swelling along the back lower portion of the leg and may increase following exercise.
Achilles tendonitis may occur in one of two forms:
Non-Insertional Achilles tendonitis: With non-insertional Achilles tendonitis the inflammation of the tendon occurs in the middle of the tendon rather than at either the origin or insertion attachment points to the tibia or heal bone respectively.
Insertional Achilles tendonitis: Ligament inflammation at the heal bone point of attachment (the insertion) is referred to as insertional Achilles tendonitis. Unlike non-insertional tendonitis, additional complications can arise, including calcification and bone spurs.
One of the most common conditions leading to pain in the bottom of the foot involves inflammation of the long flat tendon connecting the heal bone to the front of the foot. The tendon (plantar fascia) may become irritated or inflamed as a result of overuse – as in walking or running, or a recent increase in use. Additionally circumstances that may lead to inflammation of this tendon include, obesity, a high foot arch, and tight calf muscles.
In nearly all cases, non-surgical treatment is successful in correcting these conditions.
Medial tibial stress syndrome – commonly referred to as “shin splints” – is a painful yet relatively mild condition. Pain is generally experienced along or just behind the length of the large lower leg bone (tibia). The condition is an overuse result from rigorous activity such as running, or a recent increase in activity. Contributing factors may also include flat feet or rigid foot arches.
Surgical treatment is rarely needed, and non-surgical treatment can usually correct the condition in several weeks or less.